The vernier caliper, is a measuring instrument equipped with a scale and a cursor that slides in itself. In the cursor is recorded a second scale called vernier scale or nonius.
At one end of the scale there is a beak with a perpendicular face on it. On the cursor there is also a beak with a perpendicular face to the scale, and when those faces are in contact the trait 0 (zero) of cursor aligns with the mark 0 (zero) of the scale.
Calipers were designed to take external linear dimensions by contact. With less precision also measures internal dimensions, depths and protusions. In fact, for this reason it is also known as four-dimensional caliper.
To take external measures we position the object to be measured in contact with the face of the backrest of teh fixed beak, the closiest possible from scale, without touching it, and gently slid the cursor with your thumb until the face of the movable backrest beak touch the object without hitting, and without exerting too much pressure. Reading the integer value in mm is taken by comparing the trace position 0 (zero) of the cursor with fixed scale, and the decimal part by observing which trace of the cursor aligns with a trait of fixed scale. See page Vernier scale simulator to better understand this method.
This virtual vernier caliper is the replica of the metrology tool used in the metalworking industry.
The main scale of ths simulator is graduated in centimeters (1cm), which is divided by ten (millimeter). The vernier scale divide the millimeter by twenty (1/20), measuring 0.05mm (five hundredths of a millimeter).
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