Thermodynamic Transformation Simulator – Teacher’s Guide

Teacher's guide for use of the Thermodynamic Transformation Simulator

Dear colleague, this page was written to help the adoption of the Thermodynamic Transformation Simulator in its teaching practice. The following list does not intend to exhaust the subjects that can be treated with the support of the simulator of thermodynamic transformations: heat; cycles; Gas kinetics; compressibility; Thermodynamic coordinates; energy; entropy; Thermodynamic equilibrium; scales; Temperature and pressure scales; Thermal expansion; expandability; fluid; Operation of machines equipped with cylinder and piston; Ideal gas or perfect; Boyle’s law; Law of Charles and Gay-Lussac; Fundamental laws of thermodynamics; manometer; Thermal machines; pasta; Brownian motion; Pressure and gauge pressure; Processes: adiabatic, isobaric, isometric, isothermal and polytropic; Measurable properties; Relation between area and pressure; Relationship between force and pressure; Yield; temperature; thermometer; job; Volume etc.

This guide can be used as a roadmap for the use of this learning object, since this program was developed under a hypermiditic precept. The semantics of the term ‘script’ used here does not have the meaning of ‘path to be covered’, but rather a set Tips to get you quickly familiar with your idiosyncrasies.

Large cylinder rod ring This actuator, when dragged vertically, allows changing the ‘volume’ variable. See, on the scale, that the compression ratio is 5 to 1.

Tip: Macromedia Flash is not strictly a hypermedia authoring program, so instruct your students to slowly move the actuators and to persist if clicking an icon does not produce the expected change.

Small cylinder rod ring This actuator, when dragged vertically, allows changing the ‘volume’ variable. See, on the scale, that the compression ratio is 5 to 1.

Tip: Macromedia Flash is not strictly a hypermedia authoring program, so instruct your students to slowly move the actuators and to persist if clicking an icon does not produce the expected change.

Gas nozzle dial This actuator, when dragged vertically, allows to modify the height of the flame and, consequently, the internal energy of the system. There are conditions in which it does not act (invariable temperature for example). Note that increasing the temperature implies in increasing the average velocity of the gas particles.

Tip: the velocity of the particles is not the same.

Pressure Padlock Clicking on it makes the pressure invariable or causes it to return to the variable condition.

Tip: if the pressure padlock is locked with the pressure in the minimum condition and the volume at the maximum or the pressure at the maximum condition and the volume at least it would only be possible to change the volume isobarically by dramatically altering the temperature. Visualization of this effect is achieved by changing the color of the gas particles (white-red) and animating the flame.

Temperature Padlock Clicking on it makes the temperature invariant or causes it to return to the variable condition.
Volume Padlock By clicking on it the friction effects are eliminated and the large cylinder rod is released. A new click reverts this condition.

Tip: when the padlock opens the link “Click here and understand the mechanics which causes the plunger to return.” In the window with supporting text, open the” textpress.html “page with explanations of why the plunger returns to the initial position. Closing the browser or selecting the” Thermodynamic Transformation Simulator “tab Simulator to return.

The animation next to it is part of the page “textspressao.html”. Encourage students to drag the plunger down and release.
Note that when released, the plunger passes from the starting point before returning to this position. By varying the point at which the plunger is released the dramaticity of this characteristic also varies.
Tip: Tell your students that if, in fact, the plunger had no mass and there was no friction, it would probably be expelled from the cylinder.

The main objective of the inclusion of the page pressao.html is to be a model and inspire the colleague with the possibility of developing new pages addressing the related subjects.

Notepad without pencil Makes the supporting text visible / hidden (Thermodynamic Transformations window).
Small Window
Enlarges / reduces the support text window by fully occupying the screen space (Thermodynamic Transformations window). It is only accessible with the ‘Thermodynamic Transformations’ window visible.
Magnifying glass


Amplifies / reduces the font size of the supporting text (Thermodynamic Transformations window) as a measure of support for students with special needs. This icon is only accessible with the ‘Thermodynamic Transformations’ window visible.
Window Thermodynamic Transformations In it, context-sensitive support texts are displayed, which means that the program selects the text according to the action that the interactor has played. They are in the textures.txt file and can be written in HTML 1.0 format, or only text (MIME format).

When scrolling the window text to the end you will see an orientation with the following: ‘file: window.txt avptmrla’. This code is an acronym for the condition in which this text will be displayed:A = change, v = volume, p = pressure, t = temperature, m = mass, r = retains, la = releases friction. Thus, the text in this example will be displayed when all variables are free and the friction lock is released. Another example: avmrpt changes volume and mass, retains pressure and temperature: this text will be displayed when all three locks are locked, the large cylinder is fired and the small one reacts. The amvrpt code will appear in the same condition as the previous one, however, when the small cylinder is triggered. The HTML 1 ‘Tags’ that can be used in writing the text are:

external link <a href=”” target=””></a>;
bold <b></b>;
line break <br>;
font <font size=”” color=”” face=””></font>;
image <img src=””>;
italic <i></i>;
list <li></li>;
paragraph <p></p>;
break <span></span>;
underlined <u></u>.Structure of the textbook.txt file:
This file is divided into blocks containing the texts for each action. They start and end with the & amp; “& quot; signal & quot; and have the following structure: For html: & HTMLnome = <html> … </ html> &. The equal sign “=” and the string on the left can not be changed. ‘HTML’ is a code used in the program, the ‘name’ is the acronym of the condition that will call the text between <body> … and … </ body> for text only: & HTMLnome = … & Or & HTMLnome = <html> <body> … and … </ body> </ html> &
Tip: In the text only format you can select by typing [Enter] or Tag <br> to create a new paragraph.

Tip: Of course the html format is more flexible.

This window can be moved, dragged by its title bar, closed by clicking the [x] button or the pencilless block and enlarged by clicking on the little window.
Tip: Encourage students to explore the text. When the mouse cursor changes to the ‘index finger’ icon it is signified that that word is a link (it is necessary to be online and possibly, according to the settings of the antivirus and browser, some settings). A shortcut is to right-click on the select ‘copy link’ and ‘paste’ link in the address bar of the browser.
Tip: Due to some technical problem it is possible that the supporting texts are not loaded by the program at startup. This will be evident if after a few mouse movements the initial screen of the support window is not replaced by the contents. The confirmation will come by a red xis [x] on the block without pencil. Clicking on the xis [x] red is the corrective measure.

Blue circle with interrogation point (?) Opens and closes a little help for interface interaction. In the ‘close’ condition the symbol changes to one (x).
Notepad with pencil  It makes the point draw the trace of its trajectory in the Cartesian space. This effect can be disabled with a new click without loss of existing curves.
Tip: Moving the actuators slowly improves the accuracy of the stroke.
Trash can It is only visible if there is a curve in the Cartesian space. Its usefulness is intuitive.
Cartesian axis variables A click on the variables in the diagram allows to select in a menu which variable will be studied in the axis of the ordinates or abscissas.

 Alter the variables changes the color of the trail without losing the existing curves, allowing comparisons.
Printer Opens the print menu to select the print mode.

 See the options below.
Printer screen Allows you to print some of the graphics visible on the screen. This option is justified by the possibility for you, or your student, to print the result of a transformation in a pdf file and send it electronically as technology-mediated and (or) distance education strategy.

 Allowing for the possibility of printing on paper reduces as much as possible objects that would waste ink (such as the black background of the clocks or the window with supporting text).
Printer Diagram Prints only the diagram efficiently occupying the sheet space. This printing mode has been designed to be used, in particular, in the analogue medium for practice and evaluation.

Tip: There is also reduction in ink waste, the contrast background is not printed.

Printer text Prints the graphics and supporting text that is visible in the ‘Thermodynamic Transformations’ window.

Tip: The text will occupy the bottom of the sheet.

Blue circle with

The letter c (C)

Credits. Name of the author, collaborators and those who have helped and (or) will come to help / collaborate in the production of this work.
As a final consideration, I hope that this program will actually help you in your teaching practice and I ask you to share your experiences, method, supporting texts, difficulties and what else you deem relevant with other users.

This environment does not pretend to substitute reality, nor the work of the teacher, but to support the visualization of the concepts of thermodynamics.

Eduardo Stefanelli

Engenheiro por profissão, professor por vocação